Spartium junceum - Genêt d'Espagne

Famille: Leguminosae, Genre: Spartium
Geneste, Giniste, Joncier, Spartier, Spartier Faux-Jonc, Spartier à tige de jonc, Spartier à tiges de jonc, Spartion
Arbuste à croissance rapide et à feuilles caduques (3.5m de haut par 3m de large).

Habitat

Exposition
Plein soleil
Vent
Tolère un peu de vent
Humidité
Sol sec à moyen. Tolère la sécheresse.
Sol
Tous sols. Nécessite un sol drainant. Tolère les sols pauvres.
pH
Sol acide ou calcaire
Rusticité
Zone 8
Habitat originel
Dry situations amongst rocks and in bushy places, usually on limestone soils[45, 148].
Origine géographique
S. Europe to N. Africa. Naturalized in S. Britain[17].

Usages médicinaux

  • The young herbaceous tips of flowering shoots are harvested in spring, generally in May [4].
  • They can be used fresh or dried and are cardiotonic, cathartic, diuretic, emetic and purgative [4, 7, 89].
  • The seeds can also be used [4].
  • The plant is an efficacious and potent diuretic [7].
  • This plant is 5 - 6 times more active than the medicinally similar Cytisus scoparius and should be used with caution since large doses are likely to upset the stomach and cause purging [4].

Autres usages

  • A fibre from the stems is a hemp substitute [148].
  • It is used to make thread, cordage and coarse fabrics [4, 7, 11, 61, 89, 160, 169].
  • It is also used for stuffing pillows etc and for making paper [46].
  • The smaller stems are used in basket making [7, 46, 61, 89, 160].
  • The branches are often made into brooms [7].
  • une teinture jaune est obtenue à partir des fleurs [7, 89, 148, 169].
  • An essential oil is obtained from the flowers, it is used in perfumery [46, 61].
  • 1200kg of flowers yields 300 - 350gr absolute [46].

Culture

  • Succeeds in any well-drained but not too fertile soil in a sunny position [200].
  • Prefers a lime free soil according to one report[1] whilst another says that it thrives on alkaline and poor sandy soils [200].
  • Very wind resistant, tolerating maritime exposure [166, 200].
  • Tolerates atmospheric pollution[200] and thrives on hot dry banks [11, 166].
  • A very ornamental plant, it is hardy to between -10 and -18°c when in a suitable position [200].
  • The flowers have a fragrance that has been likened to oranges [245].
  • Plants can become leggy if grown in a sheltered position or too rich a soil[200], but they can be pruned almost to the ground and will resprout from the base [K].
  • They can also be trimmed in early spring in order to keep them more compact [188].
  • Plants are intolerant of root disturbance, they are best grown in pots and planted out into their permanent positions whilst still small [11].
  • Plants often self-sow in Britain [1].
  • Rabbits love eating this plant when it is young [1, K].
  • Ces plantes ont une relation symbiotique avec des bactéries du sol qui forment des nodules sur les racines et fixent l'azote atmosphérique .
  • Une partie de cet azote est utilisé par la plante mais une partie est disponible aux autres plantes poussant à proximité [200].

Propagation

  • Seed - pre-soak 24 hours in hot water and sow February/March in a greenhouse .
  • It usually germinates well and quickly [78, 200].
  • The seed can also be autumn sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame [200].
  • Repiquez les pousses dans des pots individuels quand elles sont suffisamment grandes pour être manipulées .
  • If sufficient growth is made, it is possible to plant out in the summer, otherwise overwinter them in a cold frame and plant out in late spring of the following year .

Calendrier

En fleur
6 - 9
Maturité des graines
8 - 10

Pollinisation

Type de fleur
Hermaphrodite (les fleurs ont des organes mâles et femelles)
Auto-fertile
Non
Pollinisateurs
Insectes

Divers

Pollution
Oui
Autres réferences
[11, 17, 200]

Réferences

[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 1951.
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. 1984.
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. 1984.
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. 1981.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. 1962.
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. 1959.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. 1974.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. 1948.
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[89] Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. 1987.
A very readable pocket flora that is well illustrated. Gives some information on plant uses.
[148] Niebuhr. A. D. Herbs of Greece. 1970.
A pleasant little book about Greek herbs.
[160] Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987.
Fascinating reading, this is an annual publication. Some reports do seem somewhat exaggerated though.
[166] Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. 1990.
A good book on plants that you didn't know could be grown outdoors in Britain.
[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden.
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers 1990.
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[245] Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. 1994.
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.