Cotoneaster microphyllus - Cotonéaster à petites feuilles

Famille: Rosaceae, Genre: Cotoneaster
Arbuste à croissance lente et à feuilles persistantes (1m de haut par 2m de large).

Habitat

Exposition
Plein soleil ou mi-ombre
Vent
Tolère les vents forts
Humidité
Sol sec à moyen.
Sol
Tous sols. Tolère les sols très argileux. Nécessite un sol drainant. Tolère les sols pauvres.
pH
Sol acide ou calcaire
Rusticité
Zone 5
Habitat originel
Trailing on rocks or spreading on grassy hillsides, 1200 - 5400 metres[158]. Rocky slopes, rocky mountain areas, thickets and river valleysat elevations of 2000 - 4200 metres[266].
Origine géographique
Asie orientale - Himalaya.

Comestibilité

  • Fruits - crus [272].
  • It is sweet when fully ripe [158].
  • A watery flavour [272].
  • It is possibly edible [177].
  • The fruit is about 7mm in diameter [200].

Usages médicinaux

  • The stolons are said to be astringent [240].

Autres usages

  • A rose-tan dye is obtained from the fruit .
  • The leaves are used for incense [272].
  • The plant has an extensive root system and a creeping habit above ground .
  • It makes a good soil binder [272].
  • The sub-species C. microphyllus cochleatus can be used as a ground cover plant in a sunny position [188, 208].
  • It forms a dense carpet of growth [208].
  • The branches are used for making baskets [146, 158, 272].
  • Wood - hard, close and even grained [146, 158].
  • Used for fuel [272].

Culture

  • An easily grown plant, it prefers a good soil but also does well in poor soils [1, 11, 200].
  • It thrives in lime and is also happy in peaty soils [1].
  • It succeeds in any soil that is not marshy or waterlogged [11, 200].
  • Réussi dans les sols secs [188].
  • Pousse bien dans les sols très argileux .
  • Succeeds in full sun or semi-shade but does not fruit so freely in a shady position [11, 200].
  • Tolerates atmospheric pollution [200].
  • A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -25°c [184, 200].
  • A very ornamental plant[1], there are some named forms [202].
  • Most forms are quite slow-growing [200, 202].
  • It hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200] and often self-sows in British gardens [219].
  • A low-growing plant, the branches often root when they come into contact with the soil [219].
  • The flowers, when inhaled near to, have an unpleasant smell like decaying fish [245].
  • They are very attractive to bees whilst the fruit is a good winter food source for many species of birds [200].
  • Plants are notably susceptible to honey fungus [200].

Propagation

  • Graines .
  • Members of this genus hybridize freely so, if you require seed that breeds true, it is important to obtain it from a known wild source or from a controlled fertilization of garden plants .
  • The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, when it will usually germinate in the spring [11, 200].
  • Stored seed germinates faster if given 3 months warm stratification at 15°c and then 3 months cold stratification at 4°c [164].
  • The seed usually germinates within 1 - 18 months at 15°c but it can take 2 years [164].
  • Pot the seedlings up as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant them out into nursery beds or into their permanent positions when they are more than 10cm tall .
  • Boutures de bois mi-mûr avec un talon, Juillet/Août sous chassis. [11, 200].

Calendrier

En fleur
5 - 6
En feuille
1 - 12

Pollinisation

Type de fleur
Hermaphrodite (les fleurs ont des organes mâles et femelles)
Auto-fertile
Oui
Pollinisateurs
Flies, midges

Divers

Pollution
Oui
Autres réferences
[11, 200, 266]

Réferences

[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 1951.
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. 1981.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[146] Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. 1972.
Written last century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
[158] Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. 1945.
A good flora for the middle Himalayan forests, sparsly illustrated. Not really for the casual reader.
[164] Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. 1990.
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on Chaerophyllum bulbosum.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. 1984.
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[184] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. 1989.
Excellent photographs and a terse description of 1900 species and cultivars.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers 1990.
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[202] Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. 1990.
Contains information on 2,000 species and cultivars, giving details of cultivation requirements. The text is terse but informative.
[208] Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover 1990.
An excellent detailled book on the subject, very comprehensive.
[219] Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls 1983.
A nice little book about plants for growing against walls and a small section on plants that can grow in walls.
[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). 1986.
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
[245] Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. 1994.
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.
[266] Flora of China 1994.
On-line version of the Flora - an excellent resource giving basic info on habitat and some uses.
[272] Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal 2002.
Excellent book, covering over 1,500 species of useful plants from Nepal together with information on the geography and peoples of Nepal. Good descriptions of the plants with terse notes on their uses.