Acer negundo - Erable à feuilles de frêne

Famille: Aceraceae, Genre: Acer
Erable négondo, Erable négundo, Érable américain
Arbre à croissance rapide et à feuilles caduques (21m de haut par 8m de large).

Habitat

Exposition
Plein soleil ou mi-ombre
Vent
Tolère les vents forts
Humidité
Humidité moyenne.
Sol
Tous sols. Tolère les sols très argileux. Nécessite un sol drainant.
pH
Sol acide ou calcaire
Rusticité
Zone 2
Habitat originel
Found in a variety of soil types, growing best in lowland sites along rivers, streams, ponds or seasonally flooded flats[229].
Origine géographique
N. America - Nova Scotia to Florida, west to California and Manitoba.

Comestibilité

  • The sap contains a reasonable quantity of sugar and can be used as a refreshing drink or be concentrated into a syrup [11, 46, 61, 82, 159].
  • The syrup is used as a sweetener on many foods .
  • The sugar content is inferior to A. saccharum according to one report[149] whilst another says that it is highly valued as a producer of sweet sap [183].
  • The sugar from the sap of this tree is said to be whiter than that from other maples [183].
  • To obtain the sap, bore a hole on the sunny side of the trunk into the sapwood about 1 metre above the ground at anytime from about January 1st until the leaves appear [85].
  • The flow is best on a warm day after a frost [213].
  • The best sap production comes from cold-winter areas with continental climates .
  • Écorce interne - crue ou cuite .
  • It can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or be added to cereal flours when making bread, cakes etc [257].
  • The inner bark can also be boiled until the sugar crystallizes out of it [257].
  • Self-sown seedlings, gathered in early spring, are eaten fresh or dried for later use [213].
  • Seeds - cooked .
  • The wings are removed and the seeds boiled then eaten hot [213].
  • The seed is up to 12mm long and is produced in small clusters [82].

Usages médicinaux

  • A tea made from the inner bark is used as an emetic [222, 257].

Autres usages

  • The leaves are packed around apples, rootcrops etc to help preserve them [18, 20].
  • A fairly wind-tolerant tree, it can be used in mixed plantings as a part of shelterbelt plantings [200].
  • Wood - soft, weak, light, close grained .
  • It weighs 27lb per cubic foot [235].
  • Of little commercial value, it is used for boxes, cheap furniture, pulp, fuel etc [46, 61, 82, 149, 229].
  • Large trunk burls or knots have been used to make drums [257].

Culture

  • Of easy cultivation, succeeding in most soils[202] but preferring a rich moist well-drained soil and a sunny position [11].
  • Grows well in heavy clay soils and in sandy soils [188].
  • Plants often become chlorotic on very alkaline soils [202].
  • Plants are hardy to about -18°c [202].
  • A fast growing but short-lived tree in the wild, living for 75 - 100 years [149, 229].
  • It is fairly wind-tolerant[200], but the branches have a tendency to break in strong winds [226].
  • This species is cultivated commercially in Illinois for its sap [183].
  • Another report says that this is one of the least productive species for sugar [226].
  • A very ornamental plant[1], there are several named varieties [200].
  • This tree is a bad companion plant that is said to inhibit the growth of neighbouring plants [18, 20].
  • Cette espèce est notamment résistante aux armillaires (champignons) [88, 200].
  • Very tolerant of pruning, it can regenerate from old wood if it is cut back hard [202].
  • Dioïque .
  • Vous devez planter des plants males et femelles si vous souhaitez obtenir des graines .

Propagation

  • Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, it usually germinates in the following spring .
  • Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours and then stratify for 2 - 4 months at 1 - 8°c .
  • It can be slow to germinate .
  • The seed can be harvested 'green' (when it has fully developed but before it has dried and produced any germination inhibitors) and sown immediately .
  • It should germinate in late winter .
  • If the seed is harvested too soon it will produce very weak plants or no plants at all [80, 113].
  • When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until they are 20cm or more tall before planting them out in their permanent positions .
  • Layering, which takes about 12 months, is successful with most species in this genus .
  • Cuttings of young shoots in June or July .
  • The cuttings should have 2 - 3 pairs of leaves, plus one pair of buds at the base .
  • Remove a very thin slice of bark at the base of the cutting, rooting is improved if a rooting hormone is used .
  • The rooted cuttings must show new growth during the summer before being potted up otherwise they are unlikely to survive the winter .
  • The cuttings of this species usually root easily .
  • Budding onto A. negundo in early summer usually works well .
  • The bud should develop a small shoot in the summer otherwise it is unlikely to survive the winter .

Calendrier

En fleur
4 - 5
Maturité des graines
9 - 10

Pollinisation

Type de fleur
Dioïque (les plants sont soit mâles soit femelles; les deux sont nécessaires pour obtenir des graines)
Auto-fertile
Non
Pollinisateurs
Abeilles

Divers

Pollution
Non
Autres réferences
[11, 43, 200]

Réferences

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. 1981.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[18] Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. 1979.
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.
[20] Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. 1978.
Fairly good.
[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. 1950.
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. 1959.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. 1974.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. 1985.
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
[82] Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. 1965.
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader.
[85] Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. 1967.
A superb book. Very readable, it gives the results of the authors experiments with native edible plants.
[88] RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. 1987.
Snippets of information from the magazine of the RHS. In particular, there are articles on plants that are resistant to honey fungus, oriental vegetables, Cimicifuga spp, Passiflora species and Cucurbits.
[113] Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. 1987.
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
[149] Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. 1987.
Fairly readable, it gives details of habitats and some of the uses of trees growing in Texas.
[159] McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. 1977.
A nice pocket guide to this region of America.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. 1990.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers 1990.
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[202] Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. 1990.
Contains information on 2,000 species and cultivars, giving details of cultivation requirements. The text is terse but informative.
[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. 1980.
A nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names are used instead of botanical.
[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. 1990.
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[226] Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada 1989.
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.
[229] Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. 1980.
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.
[235] Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada 1970.
Reprint of a 1913 Flora, but still a very useful book.
[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany 1998.
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.